Automated Forensic analysis of Google Workspace

Invictus Incident Response
6 min readAug 16, 2022


Follow us | LinkedIn | Twitter |GitHub

We are very excited to share this research with you! In the past months we worked with Bert-Jan Pals and Greg Charitonos to research Google Workspace and particularly how to perform automated forensic analysis of logging in Google Workspace to identify suspicious activity.


This blog post marks the public release of ALFA which was presented at the SANS DFIR Summit 2022 in Austin, TX by Korstiaan Stam. The slides for the talk can be found on our GitHub. In this post we will show you how to use ALFA and what you can do with it.


Having installed ALFA (see the README), begin by initializing a new project directory.

alfa init tutorial

You should now have a new directory called “tutorial”. ```cd`` into it. Inside, you’ll find a structure similar to the following:

├── config
│ └── config.yml
└── data

Ordinarily, you would place a credentials.json file into the "config" directory. This won't be necessary for the tutorial. Instead, a pre-made dataset will be used. cd into the "data" directory, and clone the sample dataset here.

git clone

Your directory structure should now look like:

├── config
│ └── config.yml
└── data
└── gws_dataset
├── admin.json
├── calendar.json
├── drive.json
├── groups_enterprise.json
├── login.json
├── token.json
└── user_accounts.json

You are now ready to run ALFA against the dataset.

Running ALFA

cd back into the root of your project folder. Load the entire gws_dataset directory using the following command:

alfa load -p data/gws_dataset

ALFA will automatically load every json file in the directory into its dataset.

You have dropped into a Python shell with access to an ALFA object, variable A. A has 2 important attributes:, and A.activities.

These are datasets that represent the events and activities present in the logs. In Google Audit Logs, every action is represented by an “activity”. Each “activity” contains a list of “events”. These events are essentially building blocks for activities. When loaded, ALFA will automatically analyze the events and classify specific events in accordance with the “MITRE ATT&CK Cloud Matrix Framework”.

Events and activities have a lot of data. Let’s explore the dataset to garner an understanding for the dataset. # (rows, columns) 
A.activities.shape # (rows, columns)

We have 9825 events and 9789 activities. Too many to list off. Let’s select a random sample of 10 from each, and produce a summary, to get an idea of what kind of data we’re looking at. Starting with events:

summary(      name       activity_time                              activity_id
---- --------- -------------------------------- --------------------
6417 authorize 2022-07-19 12:21:35.002000+00:00 -6241941505348084839
6295 authorize 2022-07-19 12:18:15.883000+00:00 4289095237957192984
6257 authorize 2022-07-19 12:17:15.685000+00:00 -3533409653085737212
5378 authorize 2022-07-19 10:51:12.786000+00:00 -3453280989539057832
6786 authorize 2022-07-19 12:31:54.947000+00:00 4287956763103796901
8773 authorize 2022-07-19 13:53:10.243000+00:00 4880599880504672506
7812 authorize 2022-07-19 13:00:25.098000+00:00 -872164451340203101
2310 authorize 2022-07-19 09:10:31.579000+00:00 7105495284863502655
3080 authorize 2022-07-19 09:31:51.872000+00:00 4333762167492228608
3902 authorize 2022-07-19 10:09:28.796000+00:00 -4366756655797941829

and moving onto activities:

summary(A.activities.sample(10))                      id.time                   kind                         id.applicationName
-------------------- ------------------------ ---------------------- ------------------------ --------------------
-6010887833366957832 2022-07-19T08:00:47.766Z admin#reports#activity token
7764407026099878510 2022-07-19T08:53:11.775Z admin#reports#activity token
2407139138637242658 2022-07-19T08:26:52.110Z admin#reports#activity token
-6978932130952386443 2022-07-19T09:12:01.777Z admin#reports#activity token
2956946567129110438 2022-07-19T10:35:40.534Z admin#reports#activity token
-5470615884955105544 2022-07-19T14:02:30.155Z admin#reports#activity token
4429007405214477146 2022-07-19T10:22:22.940Z admin#reports#activity token
3378976036216458085 2022-07-19T08:30:11.927Z admin#reports#activity token
6860468462391716631 2022-08-02T13:41:54.960Z admin#reports#activity token
1895767229440860272 2022-07-19T10:48:12.979Z admin#reports#activity token

From the summary note the following:

  • Each event has a name, and belongs to an activity
  • Each activity has a kind. Some have emails belonging to the user that initiated that activity.

Suppose you wanted to take a deeper look at the events belonging to one of these activities. We’ll select the activity_id of first activity, “-6010887833366957832” for this example.

A.activities.loc['-6010887833366957832'].events[{'name': 'authorize',
'parameters': [{'name': 'client_id', 'value': '106850843410684334493'},
{'name': 'app_name', 'value': '106850843410684334493'},
{'name': 'client_type', 'value': 'WEB'},
{'name': 'scope_data',
'multiMessageValue': [{'parameter': [{'name': 'scope_name',
'value': ''},
{'name': 'product_bucket', 'multiValue': ['GSUITE_ADMIN']}]}]},
{'name': 'scope',
'multiValue': ['']}],
'attack.label': ['application_access_token.use_alternate_authentication_material.defense_evasion',
'attack.category': ['defense_evasion', 'credential_access'],
'attack.index': 4,
'activity_id': '-6010887833366957832',
'activity_time': Timestamp('2022-07-19 08:00:47.766000+0000', tz='UTC')}]

Reading through the mess of data, we see it’s an authorize event (like the events in our sample). Aside from the data that Google provides, the events are also marked with an “attack.label”, “attack.category” and “attack.index”.

These columns are added by ALFA during analysis. “attack.label” contains a list of the full MITRE ATT&CK path. “attack.category” is the last portion of the path, and the index is a value that corresponds to the label. The higher the “attack.index”, the further along the event is in the MITRE ATT&CK Cloud Matrix Framework. This is useful for calculating “Kill Chains”, as will be explored in the following section.

Kill Chain Analysis

Every ALFA object (A) is a collection of activities and events. The events can be analysed to assess how closely they fit a "kill chain", using the "kill chain statistic". The "kill chain statistic", or kcs, is defined as the "tendency for a set of chronologically ordered events to escalate up the MITRE ATT&CK Cloud Matrix Framework". In other words, "how well does my dataset fit a kill chain?". It is a floating point score between -1 and 1. 1 indicates a perfect kill chain, -1 indicates moving in the complete opposite direction. A score close to 0 indicates undirected events (no pattern).

Let’s grab the kcs for the entire dataset:


We have a score just shy of 0.1. This low score is to be expected for the entire dataset. However, there may exist kill chains within the dataset. To discern these, ALFA has a “subchains” method. Let’s find some subchains.

summary( A.subchains() )----  ----  --------
9428 9435 0.928571
9680 9687 0.857143
12 19 0.714286
26 33 0.714286
33 40 0.714286
151 158 0.714286
9366 9373 0.714286
9814 9821 0.714286
76 83 0.714286
9500 9507 0.714286
---- ---- --------

Here we have a list of kill chains, each with 3 values. The first value is the start index of the kill chain. This is index of the first event in the kill chain. e.g[9428]. The second value is the end_index of the kill chain. Lastly, there is the kcs for the given kill chain. Note that the subchains are ordered by highest-kcs first.

0.93 is a very high score! Let’s take a closer look at those events:

summary([9428:9435])      name                activity_time                              activity_id
---- ------------------ -------------------------------- --------------------
9428 change_user_access 2022-08-02 07:12:37.638000+00:00 -8593694044162584673
9429 create 2022-08-02 07:12:37.638000+00:00 -8593694044162584673
9430 change_acl_editors 2022-08-02 07:12:37.638000+00:00 -8593694044162584673
9431 add_to_folder 2022-08-02 07:12:37.638000+00:00 -8593694044162584673
9432 login_verification 2022-08-02 07:13:37.996000+00:00 258855114937
9433 login_success 2022-08-02 07:13:37.996000+00:00 258855114937
9434 download 2022-08-02 07:13:57.079000+00:00 3276112931527544503

The event names can help display an overview of what occurred in this moment. By displaying the activity_time, they can also help direct you at particular points in the log which may be of interest.

Perhaps looking at the activities these events belong to is helpful. Note that there are only 3 activities associated with these 7 events.

summary([9428:9435].activities() )
id.time kind id.applicationName
-------------------- ------------------------ ---------------------- ---------------------------- --------------------
-8593694044162584673 2022-08-02T07:12:37.638Z admin#reports#activity drive
258855114937 2022-08-02T09:32:37.406Z admin#reports#activity login
3276112931527544503 2022-08-02T07:13:57.079Z admin#reports#activity drive

Here we can see which account is associated with the behavior, and where it originated from.

Activities of Interest

As mentioned above, finding interesting activities can aid the discovery of interesting portions of the dataset. To automate this, one can utilise “activities of interest” (aoi) method:

In [26]: summary( A.aoi() )
id.time kind id.applicationName
-------------------- ------------------------ ---------------------- ----------------------------- --------------------
-8637423948085216889 2022-03-14T18:07:54.887Z admin#reports#activity admin
768087181562 2022-03-19T15:24:52.241Z admin#reports#activity login
-7684398170435703864 2022-03-14T20:36:48.966Z admin#reports#activity calendar
-5686198897511485377 2022-03-19T19:38:47.642Z admin#reports#activity groups_enterprise
4000677510509368906 2022-03-19T21:13:29.295Z admin#reports#activity token
-4185571506150141986 2022-03-19T21:31:14.993Z admin#reports#activity token
8275857749769031410 2022-03-19T21:35:04.656Z admin#reports#activity token
-4582372916506076442 2022-03-19T22:17:46.663Z admin#reports#activity token
722534617001 2022-08-15T16:24:08.797Z admin#reports#activity login

The aoi method will return a list of all activities whose events appeared in a subchain. As such, it's a quick shortcut for finding interesting sections of the logs.

These activities can be exported to a json file, to be fed into a tool of your choosing:



ALFA is able to aid you in acquisition and analysis of your Google Workspace audit logging to find activities of interest. Please give it a try and we would love your feedback!

About Invictus Incident Response

We are an incident response company specialised in supporting organisations facing a cyber attack. We help our clients stay undefeated!

🆘 Incident Response support reach out to or go to

📧 Questions or suggestions contact us at



Invictus Incident Response

We are an incident response company specialised in supporting organisations facing a cyber attack. We help our clients stay undefeated!